360 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION assumed control of education. The universities of France had disappeared in the course of the Revolution, and central schools combining literary and industrial studies had partly taken their place. Napoleon now merged the various institutions of higher learning in a new University of France under officials nominated and supervised by the executive power, and committed to it the complete charge of the national education. " No one," it was decreed, " may open a school or teach publicly unless he is a member of the imperial university and a graduate of one of its faculties. ... No school may be set up outside the university and without the sanction of its head." Napoleon's object in these drastic measures of reconstruction was not obscure. He wished to make the schools and colleges of France the servants of himself and his dynasty, as he had made the army. " All the schools of the imperial university/5 it was quite explicitly stated, " will take for the basis of their instruction: (i) the precepts of the Catholic religion; (2) loyalty to the emperor, to the imperial monarchy as the trustee for the well-being of the people, and to the Napoleonic dynasty as guardian of French unity and of all the ideas proclaimed by the constitution." In accordance with this view of the function of the national education, the whole system was modelled on the military regime of its founder. " The university, in fact, was organized like a regiment. The discipline was severe, and the teachers were subject to it as well as the scholars. When a teacher infringed any regulation and incurred censure, he was put under arrest. There was a uniform for all members of the university: a black robe with blue palms. The college was a miniature reproduction of the army. Each establishment was divided into companies with sergeants and corporals. Everything was done to the sound of the drum. It was soldiers, and not men, that were to be made."* In the scheme no provision whatever was made for elementary- education. Napoleon, it is true, was not altogether lacking in interest in the matter. In spite of the fact that he refused to see Pestalozzi on his visit to Paris in 1802, saying that he had other things to think about than questions of A B C, he subsequently inspected with approval a school set up in Paris by one of Pestalozzi's disciples, and decreed the creation of one * Compayri, Histoare critique des doctrines de I'education en France, ii, p. 378.